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Clean energy from waste : fundamental investigations on ashes and tar behaviours in a two stage fluid bed-plasma process for waste gasification

표제/저자사항
Clean energy from waste : fundamental investigations on ashes and tar behaviours in a two stage fluid bed-plasma process for waste gasification / Massimiliano Materazzi
Materazzi, Massimiliano   
발행사항
Cham, Switzerland : Springer, [2017]
ⓒ2017
형태사항
xxviii, 231 pages : illustrations (some color) ; 25 cm
총서사항
(Springer theses : recognizing outstanding Ph.D. research, ISSN 2190-5053)
주기사항
"Doctoral thesis accepted by University College London, UK"
Includes bibliographical references
표준번호/부호
ISBN 9783319468693
ISBN 3319468693
ISBN 9783319468709 (eBook)
ISBN 3319468707 (eBook)
ISSN 2190-5061 (electronic)
분류기호
듀이십진분류법-> 662.87   [621.042]
주제명
Waste products as fuel    Biomass energy
내용유형
text
매체유형
unmediated
수록매체유형
volume

권별정보

권별정보 목록
편/권차 편제 저작자 발행년도 ISBN 청구기호 자료이용하는곳 자료상태
Massimiliano Materazzi [2017] 9783319468693 W662.87-19-1 보존 서고 신청후이용(보존)
CONTENTS
1 Introduction = 1
  1.1 World Energy Outlook = 1
  1.2 The Waste Debate = 4
  1.3 Waste as a Resource of Energy = 5
  1.4 Basics of Thermochemical Waste-to-Energy Technologies = 7
    1.4.1 Pyrolysis = 8
    1.4.2 Gasification = 8
    1.4.3 Plasma Arc Gasification = 9
    1.4.4 Hydrothermal Liquefaction = 9
  1.5 Current Obstacles to WtE Plants Deployment = 10
  1.6 Aims of the Thesis = 12
  1.7 Methodology = 13
    1.7.1 Operation of Fluidised Bed Reactors on Waste Fuels = 14
    1.7.2 Plasma for Treatment of Ashes and Gases = 14
    1.7.3 Performance Analysis of Two-Stage Versus Single Stage Processes = 14
    1.7.4 Reforming Mechanisms of Tars and Organic Sulphur Compounds in Plasma Environment = 15
    1.7.5 Partitioning and Chemistry of Inorganic Components in the Solid Phase = 15
  1.8 Thesis Outline = 15
  References = 17
2 Gasification of Waste Derived Fuels in Fluidized Beds : Fundamental Aspects and Industrial Challenges = 19
  2.1 Fuel Characterization = 20
    2.1.1 Fuel Preparation = 20
    2.1.2 Component Materials = 22
    2.1.3 Organic Content = 22
    2.1.4 Ash Content and Composition = 26
    2.1.5 Moisture Content = 27
    2.1.6 Element Content = 28
    2.1.7 The Energy Value of RDF = 30
    2.1.8 Preliminary Considerations Based on Fuel Characterization = 31
  2.2 Fluidized Bed Gasification : Process Overview = 33
    2.2.1 Material in-Feeding = 35
    2.2.2 Heating and Drying = 36
    2.2.3 Devolatilization and Volatile Conversion = 36
    2.2.4 Fixed Carbon Conversion = 37
    2.2.5 Particle Attrition and Elutriation = 38
    2.2.6 Comparison Between Conventional and Waste Fuels = 39
  2.3 Ash Behaviour and Agglomeration Issues = 40
    2.3.1 Mechanism = 41
    2.3.2 Effect of Temperature and Segregation Profiles = 41
    2.3.3 Effect of RDF Ash Composition = 42
    2.3.4 Entrainment, Slagging and Fouling = 44
    2.3.5 Use and Disposal of Solid Residues = 45
  2.4 Tar Formation and Reduction Measures = 47
    2.4.1 Tar Definition and Formation = 48
    2.4.2 Effect of Temperature = 50
    2.4.3 Effect of Equivalent Ratio and Steam = 51
    2.4.4 Effects of Residence Time = 52
    2.4.5 Effect of Active Materials = 53
    2.4.6 Physical Tar Reduction Measures = 54
    2.4.7 Thermal and Plasma Cracking = 57
  2.5 Remarks and Conclusions = 58
  References = 60
3 Plasma as an Alternative Way to Gas Reforming and Ash Disposal = 65
  3.1 Plasma Principles = 65
  3.2 Plasma in Hydrocarbon Processing Applications = 66
    3.2.1 Non-thermal Plasmas = 67
    3.2.2 Thermal Plasmas = 71
  3.3 Plasma-Chemical Conversion of Tars into Syngas (CO₂–H₂) and Other Hydrogen Rich Mixtures = 72
    3.3.1 Kinetics in Plasma Chemistry = 74
    3.3.2 Reactions in CO₂, H₂O, H₂ = 76
    3.3.3 Cooling and Quenching = 77
  3.4 Ash Vitrification and Material Recovery = 77
  3.5 Coupling the Plasma with the FBG : The Gasplasma Process = 80
    3.5.1 Process Overview = 81
    3.5.2 Comparison of Wet Gas Cleaning and Plasma Gas Processing Systems = 84
  3.6 Remarks and Conclusions = 88
  3.7 Current Issues and Refined Objectives of the Thesis = 88
  References = 90
4 Apparatus and Investigative Approach = 93
  4.1 Plant Overview = 94
  4.2 The Experimental Set-up = 95
    4.2.1 The Fluidized Bed Gasifier = 95
    4.2.2 The Plasma Converter = 99
    4.2.3 Containment and Tapping of Molten Products = 101
    4.2.4 Gas Cooling System = 102
    4.2.5 Dry Gas Cleaning = 104
    4.2.6 Wet Gas Cleaning = 104
    4.2.7 Syngas Utilization = 104
  4.3 Sampling and Analysis = 105
    4.3.1 Off-Gas Continuous Emissions Monitoring = 106
    4.3.2 Syngas Calorific Value = 109
    4.3.3 Tar and Organic Sulphur Sampling and Analysis = 109
    4.3.4 Solid Analysis and Residues Characterization = 110
  4.4 Plant Operation = 114
    4.4.1 Start up = 115
    4.4.2 Normal Operation = 115
    4.4.3 Shut Down = 116
    4.4.4 Test Materials and Conditions = 117
5 Modelling of a Two-Stage Process : Comparison of Different Approaches and Performance Analysis = 121
  5.1 Introduction = 121
  5.2 Single Versus Two-Stage Process = 123
  5.3 Process Modelling = 125
    5.3.1 Kinetic Models = 125
    5.3.2 Kinetic Model Formulation = 126
    5.3.3 CFD Integration = 131
    5.3.4 Thermodynamic Models = 132
    5.3.5 Thermodynamic Equilibrium Formulation = 133
  5.4 Results and Discussion = 138
    5.4.1 Experimental Validation of Kinetic Model Data : Single Versus Two-Stage Process 139
    5.4.2 Experimental Validation of Thermodynamic Model Data : Single Versus Two-Stage Process = 143
  5.5 Performance Analysis = 148
    5.5.1 First Law Efficiency = 150
    5.5.2 Plasma Versus Secondary Oxygen = 151
    5.5.3 Second Law Efficiency = 155
  5.6 Conclusion = 157
  References = 158
6 Tar Evolution in the Two Stage Fluid Bed-Plasma Gasification Process = 161
  6.1 Introduction = 161
  6.2 Thermal-Activated Model for Tar Reforming = 164
    6.2.1 Model Formulation = 165
  6.3 Experimental Description = 167
    6.3.1 Test Conditions = 167
    6.3.2 Materials = 168
    6.3.3 System Monitoring and Analysis = 168
  6.4 Results and Discussion = 169
    6.4.1 Kinetic Model Validation = 169
    6.4.2 Organics in the Slag Phase = 172
    6.4.3 Effects on Sulphur Species = 173
    6.4.4 The Role of Plasma in the Reforming of Tars = 175
    6.4.5 Effects on CO and CO₂ Distribution and Soot Formation = 178
  6.5 Evaluation of the Reforming Mechanism = 183
    6.5.1 Destabilization of the Aromatic System = 184
    6.5.2 Oxidation of Soot Precursors and CO Formation = 184
    6.5.3 Further Evidence of the Effect of Plasma = 186
  6.6 Conclusions = 187
  References = 188
7 Fate and Behaviour of Inorganic Constituents = 191
  7.1 Introduction = 191
  7.2 Experiments and Methods = 194
    7.2.1 Materials = 194
    7.2.2 Test Conditions = 195
    7.2.3 Sampling and Analysis = 197
  7.3 Results and Discussion = 199
    7.3.1 Plant Operation = 199
    7.3.2 Analysis Data and Evaluation of Solid Samples = 203
  7.4 Conclusions = 213
  References = 213
8 Conclusions and Future Work = 215
  8.1 Further Discussion and Recommendations = 217
    8.1.1 Operation of Fluidised Bed Reactors on Waste Fuels = 217
    8.1.2 Plasma for Treatment of Ashes and Gases = 218
    8.1.3 Fuel Flexibility = 219
    8.1.4 Correlation Between Theoretical and Observed Behaviour 219
    8.1.5 New Reforming Mechanisms of Tars and Organic Sulphur Compounds in Plasma Environment = 220
    8.1.6 Partitioning and Chemistry of Inorganic Components in the Solid Phase = 220
    8.1.7 Accuracy and Consequences for Scale up = 221
  8.2 Future Work = 221
    8.2.1 Modelling =221
    8.2.2 Experimental = 222
Appendix = 223

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