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The regional diversification of Latin 200 BC-AD 600

표제/저자사항
The regional diversification of Latin 200 BC-AD 600 / J.N. Adams
Adams, J. N.   
발행사항
Cambridge, United Kingdom : Cambridge University Press, 2014
형태사항
xix, 828 pages : maps ; 24 cm
주기사항
First published: 2007
Includes bibliographical references (pages 747-785) and indexes 전자버전: http://www.loc.gov/catdir/enhancements/fy0810/2008297279-t.html
표준번호/부호
ISBN 9781107684584 (Paperback)
ISBN 1107684587 (Paperback)
ISBN 9780521881494 (Hardback)
ISBN 0521881498 (Hardback)
분류기호
듀이십진분류법-> 470.9
주제명
Latin language -- Variation    Latin language -- History
내용유형
text
매체유형
unmediated
수록매체유형
volume

권별정보

권별정보 목록
편/권차 편제 저작자 발행년도 ISBN 청구기호 자료이용하는곳 자료상태
J.N. Adams 9781107684584(Paperback) W470.9-15-1 보존 서고 신청후이용(보존)
CONTENTS
List of maps = xii
Preface = xv
List of abbreviations = xviii
Ⅰ Introduction = 1
  1 Aims, methods and findings = 1
  2 Some definitions : 'dialect' and 'accent' = 8
  3 'Dialect terms/words' = 12
  4 'Standard' varieties and 'language standardisation' = 13
  5 Cities and forms of dialect diffusion = 18
  6 Dialects and colonisation = 21
  7 Old and new dialects = 27
  8 'Shrinkage', isolation and archaism = 31
  9 'Regions', 'areas' of the Roman Empire = 32
  10 Recapitulation : themes applicable to Rome that have come up so far = 33
  11 A recent account of the reasons for the diversity of colonial speech = 34
  12 Final questions = 35
  13 Plan and some limitations = 35
Ⅱ The Republic : inscriptions = 37
  1 Introduction = 37
  2 Inscriptions = 39
  3 The genitive in -us = 40
  4 The digraph oi and long u = 44
  5 The first-declension dative in -a = 46
  6 e for ei = 52
  7 o and ou = 64
  8 i for long e = 67
  9 i and e in hiatus = 68
  10 u for Latin long o : Oscan influence? = 72
  11 Monophthongisation of ai/ae = 78
  12 Mircurius and comparable forms = 89
  13 Loss of final -t/-d = 92
  14 Names of the god Mars = 93
  15 The name Hercules = 95
  16 Lexical mixing in a regional inscription = 96
  17 Some 'nominative' forms in Etruria = 97
  18 Latin and Faliscan = 100
  19 A lexical item in an inscription of Praeneste = 107
  20 The 'intermediate' vowel in the late Republic = 107
  21 Conclusions = 108
Ⅲ Explicit evidence for regional variation : the Republic = 114
  1 Introduction = 114
  2 The Republic : introduction = 118
  3 Plautus, Lucilius and the Latin of Praeneste = 119
  4 Cicero = 123
    4.1 The city 'sound' : smoothness' versus 'harshness' = 124
    4.2 Athens and Rome = 129
    4.3 Some further Ciceronian evidence = 132
    4.4 rusticus and agrestis = 143
    4.5 Cicero : some conclusions = 145
  5 Asinius Pollio and the Patavinitas of Livy = 147
  6 Varro = 153
  7 Nigidius Figulus = 174
  8 Other republican and Augustan testimonia = 174
  9 Some conclusions = 182
    9.1 The existence of regional variety = 182
    9.2 Places named = 184
    9.3 General regional features identified by the sources = 185
    9.4 Determinants of variation = 186
    9.5 What dialects were there? = 187
Ⅳ Explicit evidence : the Empire = 188
  1 Italy = 188
    1.2 Romanness and related ideas = 188
    1.3 Specific usages from parts of Italy = 206
  2 Spain = 231
    2.1 Spanish accent = 231
    2.2 Spanish testimonia : Columella = 233
    2.3 Spanish testimonia : Pliny = 235
    2.4 Spanish testimonia : Isidore = 238
  3 Gaul = 240
    3.1 Aquitania : a new twist to an old topos = 240
    3.2 Some phonetic evidence = 244
    3.3 Some lexical evidence = 250
    3.4 Miscellaneous = 258
    3.5 Some conclusions = 258
  4 Africa = 259
    4.1 Some vague testimonia = 260
    4.2 Vowel system = 260
    4.3 'Labdacism' = 265
    4.4 A passage of Jerome = 268
    4.5 Lexical testimonia = 269
    4.6 Conclusion = 269
  5 General conclusions = 270
    5.1 The rhetoric of metalinguistic comments = 270
    5.2 Patterns of variation = 271
    5.3 Causes of regional variation = 272
    5.4 Strong regionalisms = 273
    5.5 Ancient testimonia and the Romance languages = 273
    5.6 False regionalisms = 273
    5.7 Romanness = 275
Ⅴ Regionalisms in provincial texts : Gaul = 276
  1 Introduction : some points of methodology = 276
  2 Early texts from Gaul : La Graufesenque = 281
  3 Later imperial Gallic texts of known provenance = 289
    3.1 Marcellus of Bordeaux(?) = 289
    3.2 Caesarius of Arles = 293
    3.3 Polemius Silvius = 295
    3.4 Endlicher's glossary = 299
    3.5 The catalogue of fish in Ausonius' Mosella = 304
    3.6 A Gallic inscription with moritex = 311
  4 Germanic law codes = 313
    4.1 Pactus legis Salicae = 313
    4.2 Lex Burgundionum = 320
    4.3 Leges Alamannorum = 323
    4.4 Lex Ribuaria = 327
    4.5 Some conclusions = 327
  5 Some texts of uncertain provenance = 329
    5.1 Anthimus = 329
    5.2 Eucheria = 335
    5.3 A school exercise = 337
    5.4 Actus Petri cum Simone = 338
    5.5 Peregrinatio Aetheriae = 342
  6 Miscellaneous = 353
  7 General conclusions = 356
    7.1 Two questions = 356
    7.2 Linguistic criteria for locating a text or the origin of its author = 357
    7.3 Strong and weak dialect terms = 360
    7.4 Some stages in the regional diversification of Gallic Latin = 365
    7.5 How do regionalisms get into written texts? = 366
    7.6 Forms of substrate influence = 368
    7.7 Causes of regional variation = 368
Ⅵ Spain = 370
  1 Introduction = 370
  2 The supposed conservatism of Spanish Latin = 372
  3 Some possible Hispanisms in classical Latin = 402
  4 The alleged Oscan influence on Spanish(and Italian dialects) = 406
  5 Some imperial evidence for Spanish regionalisms = 421
  6 Some conclusions = 428
Ⅶ Italy = 432
  1 Introduction = 432
  2 Varro = 433
  3 Virgil = 435
  4 Petronius = 437
  5 Pompeii = 441
  6 'Campanian' Latin and the Johns Hopkins defixiones = 443
  7 Columella = 451
  8 The Regvla of Benedict = 452
  9 Miscellaneous spellings = 453
  10 A matter of syntax = 456
  11 Linguistic evidence for the provenance of some late texts = 457
    11.1 The Ravenna papyri = 457
    11.2 Compositiones Lucenses = 465
    11.3 The Latin translations of Oribasius = 472
    11.4 The commentary on Galen = 501
    11.5 Physica Plinii Bambergensis = 503
    11.6 Some conclusions : regional Latin and medical texts = 507
    11.7 Edictus Rothari = 511
    11.8 Itinerarium Antonini Placentini = 513
  12 Some final remarks = 513
Ⅷ Africa = 516
  1 Africitas = 516
    1.1 African Latin as 'archaic' = 518
    1.2 Two usages = 519
  2 Some sources of information about African Latin = 520
  3 A revealing lexical example : buda = 522
  4 Some medical texts identifiable as African on linguistic evidence = 528
    4.1 Mustio = 529
    4.2 Cassius Felix = 530
    4.3 Dioscorides = 533
    4.4 Liber tertius = 534
    4.5 Some further features of the above texts = 534
    4.6 Some conclusions = 540
    4.7 Some further, more marginal, usages = 542
  5 Possible Africanisms in Nonius Marcellus = 546
  6 Tablettes Albertini = 549
  7 The Bu Njem ostraca = 562
  8 Recapitulation = 565
  9 Miscellaneous lexical items, and Sardinia again = 566
  10 Some remarks on Punic and Libyan = 569
  11 Conclusions = 573
Ⅸ Britain = 577
  1 The coming of Latin to Britain = 577
  2 Newly discovered Latin from Britain = 579
  3 The origin of those who have left writing in Britain = 580
  4 Evidence of Latin loan-words in British Celtic = 583
  5 Jackson's twelve points = 587
  6 'Social gradience' = 593
  7 Features of the Latin of Britain shared with that of Gaul = 596
  8 A special case : excussorium 'threshing-floor' and excutio 'thresh' = 604
  9 Another special case : corticivs = 606
  10 Some correspondences between Latin attested in Britain and loan-words in Celtic = 609
  11 Some conclusions = 612
  12 Vindolanda and British medieval Latin = 614
  13 The 'Celtic' inscriptions of Britain = 616
  14 Hibernisms in Irish Latin = 620
  15 Conclusions = 622
Ⅹ Inscriptions = 624
  1 Introduction = 624
  2 Specific phenomena = 626
    2.1 The confusion of B and V = 626
    2.2 B and V and the Romance evidence = 627
    2.3 The confusion of e and i(representing original short i) = 628
  3 Misspellings in inscriptions as evidence for dialectalisation? Some methodological considerations = 629
  4 A comparative method of assessing the regional significance of spelling errors = 635
  5 A comparison region by region = 636
  6 Alleged causes of the merger of/b/and/w/ = 663
  7 Vocalic misspellings again = 666
    7.1 The 'Roman accent' and its alleged effects = 666
    7.2 The Danubian provinces = 668
    7.3 Vocalic spellings around the Adriatic coast = 669
  8 Inscriptions and 'dialect geography': some miscellaneous studies = 670
  9 Some conclusions = 676
  10 Lexicon = 677
  11 'Inscriptional' or 'pseudo'-regionalisms = 678
  12 Final remarks = 682
Ⅺ Conclusion = 684
  1 'Unitary' and 'differential' theories = 684
  2 Metalinguistic comments : some patterns = 685
  3 Some aspects of the history of regional Latin = 690
    3.1 Diversity and language contact in republican Italy = 690
    3.2 The ideal of Romanness : Romanisation = 696
    3.3 Other influential urban centres = 697
    3.4 Koineisation = 698
    3.5 Regional continuities = 698
    3.6 Developments in micro-communities = 701
    3.7 Wider areas : those crossing geographical or political boundaries = 705
    3.8 Provinces = 710
  4 Causes of regional variety = 711
    4.1 Archaisms = 712
    4.2 Innovation = 714
    4.3 A different way of looking at archaism and innovation : lexical change at the centre or margins of an empire = 715
    4.4 Language contact = 716
    4.5 Diffusion = 717
    4.6 Differential rates of linguistic change in different places = 719
    4.7 Isolation = 720
    4.8 Local specificities = 720
  5 Further themes and problems = 721
    5.1 Flora and fauna = 721
    5.2 'Dialects', Latin and Romance = 723
    5.3 The lexicon, phonology and the problem of syntax = 726
    5.4 The localising of literary and other texts = 731
    5.5 Regional language and Latin literature = 731
Maps = 733
Bibliography = 747
Index verborum = 786
Subject index = 797
Index locorum = 808

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Classical Latin appears to be without regional dialects, yet Latin evolved in little more than a millennium into a variety of different languages (the Romance languages: Italian, French, Spanish, Portuguese etc.). Was regional diversity apparent from the earliest times, obscured perhaps by the standardisation of writing, or did some catastrophic event in late antiquity cause the language to vary? These questions have long intrigued Latinists and Romance philologists, struck by the apparent uniformity of Latin alongside the variety of Romance. This book, first published in 2007, establishes that Latin was never geographically uniform. The changing patterns of diversity and the determinants of variation are examined from the time of the early inscriptions of Italy, through to late antiquity and the beginnings of the Romance dialects in the western Roman provinces. This is the most comprehensive treatment ever undertaken of the regional diversification of Latin throughout its history in the Roman period.

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