In this thesis, in order to examine the changing process of the modern concept of physical exercise in Korea, I investigate the existing materials described by facilities, racial movementalists, and Korean students in Japan in around the late 1890s and early 1900s. As the result, I reach the following results. First, before the late 1900s Park Yeong-hyo's preservation, Yu Kil-jun's care, and Ko-jong's recuperation were used as the meanings of physical exercise, which were to exercise one's body through physical activities and similar to the concept of today's physical exercise. Second, in the early 1900s and under the rule of Japanese imperialism, through a sort of educational reforms, the term ‘gymnastics' was used, and it was selected as a curriculum of each school. It means that it enables people to act smartly and form their neat and regular habits through their physically healthy growth and mentally cheerful development. The content of it is similar to that of today's physical exercise. Third, In the early 1900s and under the rule of Japanese imperialism, racial movementalists and Korean students in Japan used the terms both ‘gymnastics' and ‘physical exercise', which mean to development the body and mind through exercises. Therefore, it can be stated that the concepts of ‘physical exercise' and ‘gymnastics' were not yet established clearly. Like these, physical exercise was used as the meanings of perservation, care, recuperation of one's health before 1900s, however in the early 1900s and under the rule of Japanese imperialism, both gymnastics and physical exercise were used together. And according to the educational reforms, gymnastics was selected as a curriculum in each school, which means that today's gymnastics was used as a means of physical activities including educational factors and sports.